World’s most powerful missile defense systems - RESEARCH

2021/12/IMAG-1638793476-4916756841.jpg
Read: 785     10:14     08 December 2021    

Islamabad recently unveiled a new SHAHPAR-II drone manufactured by Pakistan's NESCOM at the EDEX 2021 defense exhibition in Cairo, Egypt. Its performance endurance is 7 hours in armed mode and 14 hours during surveillance flights and service ceiling is 6 km. The payload capacity of the PUA is 60 kg. The flight potential without satellite communication is 300 km, and if such communication is available, it is 1050 km.


On that eve, addressing the opening ceremony of the "Defense and Aviation Industry 2021 Global Strategies" conference, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that most European Union and NATO countries show great interest in purchasing Turkish UAVs.

He underlined that as NATO and EU member Poland’s purchase of the Turkish UAVs and adding these products to its arsenal is of great significance.   

Besides, the development of anti-aircraft missiles, rocket and space technology, aviation and other "smart" means for air strikes demands the improvement of existing anti-aircraft missile systems and the creation of new systems to combat them more effectively.

But which countries can now boast their air defense and missile defense systems? Here are the systems in the top five.

1.     Russian-made S-400 Triumph

The S-400 Triumph (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler) is an air defence missile system developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau of Russia. The new system replaced the S-300P and S-200 air defence systems of the Russian Army. The S-400 was developed as an upgrade of the S-300 series of surface-to-air missile systems.

The S-400 Triumph is designed to engage, ECM, radar-picket, director area, reconnaissance, strategic and tactical aircraft, tactical and theatre ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles and other current and future air attack assets at a maximum range of 400 km, and an altitude of up to 30 km. The S-400 Triumph can also destroy Tomahawk cruise missiles and other types of missiles, including precision-guided ones, as well as AWACS aircraft, at ranges of up to 400 km. It can also detect stealth aircraft and other targets at all altitudes of their combat employment and at maximum ranges. This air defense missile system can simultaneously engage 36 targets. Work of the development of the S-400 Triumph air defense missile system is a visible embodiment of cooperation among weapons developers.

China became the first foreign buyer of these systems and will receive two batches. In July 2018, the Russian press agency TASS has announced that China has received the first batch of Russian-made S-400 Triumf missile systems. On 15 October 2016 during the BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems. On 5 October 2018, India and Russia signed a US$5.43 billion deal for five S-400 missile systems.

2.     Israel’s “David’s Sling” missile defense system

The “David’s Sling”, formerly known as the “Magic Wand”, was designed to intercept enemy aircraft, according to a report by the American Federation of Scientists “Military Assistance to Israel” drones, tactical ballistic missiles, ICBMs and cruise missiles in the range from 40 km to 300 km.

“David’s Sling” was once used for combat purposes. On 23 July 2018, the Israeli air defense force deployed the “Magic Wand” against two Syrian “Scad” missiles, which have been in use by the Soviet army since 1975.

It is not known if this is a coincidence, but the US military media has recently written extensively about the “best of the best” missile defense systems. including “S-400” and “David’s Sling”. At the same time, there is a heated discussion in US military forums about which anti-missile system is more effective – Russian or Israeli.

“David’s sling” can be compared to “Patriot” of America or “Aster-15/30” of Europe. They have practically the same technology.

It should be added that in the US, “David’s Sling” is known as the US-Israeli missile defense system, because the project involved defense contractor Raytheon.

3.     SAMP-T system, a joint product of France and Italy

Eurosam – a joint venture (JV) of MBDA France, MBDA Italy, and Thales – has held system trials of the SAMP/T NG (Sol Air Moyenne Portée Terrestre Nouvelle Génération) next-generation long-range, ground-based air missile defence system, ahead of planned deliveries to France and Italy of a fully integrated and qualified capability in 2025.

The SAMP/T is a land-based air defence system, incorporating the MBDA Aster 30 missile, designed to protect land forces and sensitive sites and zones from conventional threats such as aircraft, UAV’s, helicopters and the new generation of stand-off missiles and short range ballistic missiles.

The two firings were carried out by the army at the PISQ (Poligono Interforze Salto di Quirra) joint armed forces test range in Sardinia. For both firings, the full operational configuration of the SAMP/T weapon system was tested entirely autonomously by the Italian army unit. The systemincluded an additional Command Module to manage the system deployment and the links with the upper defence network.

For the first firing, conducted on 22nd May, the Aster 30 missile was launched against a Mirach 100 aerial target flying at low altitude at approximately 150 metres. The system correctly tracked the target at a range of 25 km from the battery and intercepted it target within 15 km over the test range waters.During the second firing, on 26th May, a more complex scenario was demonstrated. This involved a patrol of two Mirach 100 targets flying towards the SAMP/T system Flying Control Unit. Under the scenario, the system tracked the patrol, correctly identified the selected “attacking” target and intercepted it at 21km during its evasive manoeuvre. Both trials were a total success with the complete range of test objectives achieved.

The ASTER 30 SAMP/T system is designed to meet medium and long range air defence needs (force projection, protection of high-value areas and area protection). It can operate in stand alone mode or can be integrated in a co-ordinated network.

ASTER is a two-stage missile, a concept which leads to maximum effectiveness of the interceptor stage. The solid propellant booster ensures the optimum shaping of the missile’s trajectory in the direction of the target and separates a few seconds after the vertical launch. Up to its mid-course, the weapon is inertially guided, using refreshed target data transmitted by the engagement module through the multi-function radar. During the homing phase, guidance is achieved by an electromagnetic active seeker providing a highly accurate capability in all weathers.

4.     US Army’s MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile 

The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. Patriot uses an advanced aerial interceptor missile and high-performance radar systems. The Patriot system is modular and highly mobile. A battery-sized element can be emplaced in less than 1 hour. Patriot systems have been sold to Taiwan, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Spain.

The role of the PATRIOT is to defend against airborne threats as part of an integrated air and missile defence system. Notable characteristics of the PATRIOT system include a short response time, the ability to engage multiple targets simultaneously, good ground mobility, and the ability to resist electronic jamming. The first PATRIOT air defence systems were deployed by U.S. Forces in the mid-1980s. During the first Gulf War, it was used to defend against the Iraqi Scud missile threat. The PATRIOT system has evolved over the years as the threat has changed and technology has advanced. The current PATRIOT variants are equipped with advanced interceptor missiles and high-performance radar systems. PATRIOT stands for “Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target”. In December 2020, United States has confirmed the purchase of Patriot missile systems by Morocco.

The system's missiles are transported on and launched from the M901 Launching Station, which can carry up to four PAC-2 missiles or up to sixteen PAC-3 missiles.. Each launcher has four missiles. Each container-launcher box is 6.1 m long, 1.09 m wide and 0.99 m high. Weight empty is 794 kg and loaded 1,696 kg.

The Patriot missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system. Midcourse correction commands are transmitted to the guidance system from the mobile engagement control center. The target acquisition system in the missile acquires the target in the terminal phase of flight and transmits the data using the TVM downlink via the ground radar to the engagement control station for final course correction calculations. The course correction commands are transmitted to the missile via the missile track command uplink. The high-explosive 90kg warhead is situated behind the terminal guidance section. The range of the missile is 70km and maximum altitude is greater than 24km. The minimum flight time is the time to arm the missile, which is less than nine seconds, and the maximum flight time is less than three and a half minutes.

5. China's HQ-9 air defense system

 The Hong Qi 9 or HQ-9 is a Chinese air defense missile system. It is broadly equivalent to the Russian S-300. Some sources report that the HQ-9 was developed with Russian assistance and benefits from Russian technology transfers. Also it uses missiles similar to those of the S-300. Interestingly some sources report that the HQ-9 also incorporates some electronic technologies of the US Patriot air defense system. This Chinese air defense system was reportedly adopted in 1997. Its export version, the FD-2000, has been exported to Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Pakistan and Turkey were negotiating with China to purchase this air defense system.

The HQ-9 is a fourth-generation surface to air missile (SAM) system. While not the most advanced SAM system in the world, if it has indeed been deployed to Woody Island then this would be the most advanced long range air defense missile currently deployed to an island in the South China Sea.

The HQ-9 can intercept various aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, cruise missiles, air-to-ground missiles, guided bombs and theater ballistic missiles at medium- to long ranges.

The HQ-9 is capable of engaging multiple aircraft, including combat aircraft. It resembles the Russian S300 system but China is assessed to have developed variants of the system with a longer range, potentially up to 230 kilometers.

The HQ-9 surface-to-air missile system was developed much later than the Russian S-300 and incorporates advancements in the electronics. Notably it employs newer computing technology.

The HQ-9 uses two-stage missiles with thrust vector control. It is reportedly based on Soviet 5V55 missile, used by the early S-300 air defense systems. Chinese missiles have a range of up to 125 km against aircraft and 15-25 km against cruise and ballistic missiles. Missiles can reach aircraft at an altitude of 27 km and cruise and ballistic missiles at an altitude of 15-25 km. The missile has inertial guidance with mid-course update and terminal active radar homing. This air defense system can perform air defense engagement in a massive air raid under intense electronic jamming.

The ranking includes only the systems that are included in the arsenal of states and successfully used by various armies.

 

 



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News Line

World’s most powerful missile defense systems - RESEARCH

2021/12/IMAG-1638793476-4916756841.jpg
Read: 786     10:14     08 December 2021    

Islamabad recently unveiled a new SHAHPAR-II drone manufactured by Pakistan's NESCOM at the EDEX 2021 defense exhibition in Cairo, Egypt. Its performance endurance is 7 hours in armed mode and 14 hours during surveillance flights and service ceiling is 6 km. The payload capacity of the PUA is 60 kg. The flight potential without satellite communication is 300 km, and if such communication is available, it is 1050 km.


On that eve, addressing the opening ceremony of the "Defense and Aviation Industry 2021 Global Strategies" conference, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said that most European Union and NATO countries show great interest in purchasing Turkish UAVs.

He underlined that as NATO and EU member Poland’s purchase of the Turkish UAVs and adding these products to its arsenal is of great significance.   

Besides, the development of anti-aircraft missiles, rocket and space technology, aviation and other "smart" means for air strikes demands the improvement of existing anti-aircraft missile systems and the creation of new systems to combat them more effectively.

But which countries can now boast their air defense and missile defense systems? Here are the systems in the top five.

1.     Russian-made S-400 Triumph

The S-400 Triumph (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler) is an air defence missile system developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau of Russia. The new system replaced the S-300P and S-200 air defence systems of the Russian Army. The S-400 was developed as an upgrade of the S-300 series of surface-to-air missile systems.

The S-400 Triumph is designed to engage, ECM, radar-picket, director area, reconnaissance, strategic and tactical aircraft, tactical and theatre ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles and other current and future air attack assets at a maximum range of 400 km, and an altitude of up to 30 km. The S-400 Triumph can also destroy Tomahawk cruise missiles and other types of missiles, including precision-guided ones, as well as AWACS aircraft, at ranges of up to 400 km. It can also detect stealth aircraft and other targets at all altitudes of their combat employment and at maximum ranges. This air defense missile system can simultaneously engage 36 targets. Work of the development of the S-400 Triumph air defense missile system is a visible embodiment of cooperation among weapons developers.

China became the first foreign buyer of these systems and will receive two batches. In July 2018, the Russian press agency TASS has announced that China has received the first batch of Russian-made S-400 Triumf missile systems. On 15 October 2016 during the BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems. On 5 October 2018, India and Russia signed a US$5.43 billion deal for five S-400 missile systems.

2.     Israel’s “David’s Sling” missile defense system

The “David’s Sling”, formerly known as the “Magic Wand”, was designed to intercept enemy aircraft, according to a report by the American Federation of Scientists “Military Assistance to Israel” drones, tactical ballistic missiles, ICBMs and cruise missiles in the range from 40 km to 300 km.

“David’s Sling” was once used for combat purposes. On 23 July 2018, the Israeli air defense force deployed the “Magic Wand” against two Syrian “Scad” missiles, which have been in use by the Soviet army since 1975.

It is not known if this is a coincidence, but the US military media has recently written extensively about the “best of the best” missile defense systems. including “S-400” and “David’s Sling”. At the same time, there is a heated discussion in US military forums about which anti-missile system is more effective – Russian or Israeli.

“David’s sling” can be compared to “Patriot” of America or “Aster-15/30” of Europe. They have practically the same technology.

It should be added that in the US, “David’s Sling” is known as the US-Israeli missile defense system, because the project involved defense contractor Raytheon.

3.     SAMP-T system, a joint product of France and Italy

Eurosam – a joint venture (JV) of MBDA France, MBDA Italy, and Thales – has held system trials of the SAMP/T NG (Sol Air Moyenne Portée Terrestre Nouvelle Génération) next-generation long-range, ground-based air missile defence system, ahead of planned deliveries to France and Italy of a fully integrated and qualified capability in 2025.

The SAMP/T is a land-based air defence system, incorporating the MBDA Aster 30 missile, designed to protect land forces and sensitive sites and zones from conventional threats such as aircraft, UAV’s, helicopters and the new generation of stand-off missiles and short range ballistic missiles.

The two firings were carried out by the army at the PISQ (Poligono Interforze Salto di Quirra) joint armed forces test range in Sardinia. For both firings, the full operational configuration of the SAMP/T weapon system was tested entirely autonomously by the Italian army unit. The systemincluded an additional Command Module to manage the system deployment and the links with the upper defence network.

For the first firing, conducted on 22nd May, the Aster 30 missile was launched against a Mirach 100 aerial target flying at low altitude at approximately 150 metres. The system correctly tracked the target at a range of 25 km from the battery and intercepted it target within 15 km over the test range waters.During the second firing, on 26th May, a more complex scenario was demonstrated. This involved a patrol of two Mirach 100 targets flying towards the SAMP/T system Flying Control Unit. Under the scenario, the system tracked the patrol, correctly identified the selected “attacking” target and intercepted it at 21km during its evasive manoeuvre. Both trials were a total success with the complete range of test objectives achieved.

The ASTER 30 SAMP/T system is designed to meet medium and long range air defence needs (force projection, protection of high-value areas and area protection). It can operate in stand alone mode or can be integrated in a co-ordinated network.

ASTER is a two-stage missile, a concept which leads to maximum effectiveness of the interceptor stage. The solid propellant booster ensures the optimum shaping of the missile’s trajectory in the direction of the target and separates a few seconds after the vertical launch. Up to its mid-course, the weapon is inertially guided, using refreshed target data transmitted by the engagement module through the multi-function radar. During the homing phase, guidance is achieved by an electromagnetic active seeker providing a highly accurate capability in all weathers.

4.     US Army’s MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile 

The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. Patriot uses an advanced aerial interceptor missile and high-performance radar systems. The Patriot system is modular and highly mobile. A battery-sized element can be emplaced in less than 1 hour. Patriot systems have been sold to Taiwan, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Spain.

The role of the PATRIOT is to defend against airborne threats as part of an integrated air and missile defence system. Notable characteristics of the PATRIOT system include a short response time, the ability to engage multiple targets simultaneously, good ground mobility, and the ability to resist electronic jamming. The first PATRIOT air defence systems were deployed by U.S. Forces in the mid-1980s. During the first Gulf War, it was used to defend against the Iraqi Scud missile threat. The PATRIOT system has evolved over the years as the threat has changed and technology has advanced. The current PATRIOT variants are equipped with advanced interceptor missiles and high-performance radar systems. PATRIOT stands for “Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target”. In December 2020, United States has confirmed the purchase of Patriot missile systems by Morocco.

The system's missiles are transported on and launched from the M901 Launching Station, which can carry up to four PAC-2 missiles or up to sixteen PAC-3 missiles.. Each launcher has four missiles. Each container-launcher box is 6.1 m long, 1.09 m wide and 0.99 m high. Weight empty is 794 kg and loaded 1,696 kg.

The Patriot missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system. Midcourse correction commands are transmitted to the guidance system from the mobile engagement control center. The target acquisition system in the missile acquires the target in the terminal phase of flight and transmits the data using the TVM downlink via the ground radar to the engagement control station for final course correction calculations. The course correction commands are transmitted to the missile via the missile track command uplink. The high-explosive 90kg warhead is situated behind the terminal guidance section. The range of the missile is 70km and maximum altitude is greater than 24km. The minimum flight time is the time to arm the missile, which is less than nine seconds, and the maximum flight time is less than three and a half minutes.

5. China's HQ-9 air defense system

 The Hong Qi 9 or HQ-9 is a Chinese air defense missile system. It is broadly equivalent to the Russian S-300. Some sources report that the HQ-9 was developed with Russian assistance and benefits from Russian technology transfers. Also it uses missiles similar to those of the S-300. Interestingly some sources report that the HQ-9 also incorporates some electronic technologies of the US Patriot air defense system. This Chinese air defense system was reportedly adopted in 1997. Its export version, the FD-2000, has been exported to Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Pakistan and Turkey were negotiating with China to purchase this air defense system.

The HQ-9 is a fourth-generation surface to air missile (SAM) system. While not the most advanced SAM system in the world, if it has indeed been deployed to Woody Island then this would be the most advanced long range air defense missile currently deployed to an island in the South China Sea.

The HQ-9 can intercept various aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, cruise missiles, air-to-ground missiles, guided bombs and theater ballistic missiles at medium- to long ranges.

The HQ-9 is capable of engaging multiple aircraft, including combat aircraft. It resembles the Russian S300 system but China is assessed to have developed variants of the system with a longer range, potentially up to 230 kilometers.

The HQ-9 surface-to-air missile system was developed much later than the Russian S-300 and incorporates advancements in the electronics. Notably it employs newer computing technology.

The HQ-9 uses two-stage missiles with thrust vector control. It is reportedly based on Soviet 5V55 missile, used by the early S-300 air defense systems. Chinese missiles have a range of up to 125 km against aircraft and 15-25 km against cruise and ballistic missiles. Missiles can reach aircraft at an altitude of 27 km and cruise and ballistic missiles at an altitude of 15-25 km. The missile has inertial guidance with mid-course update and terminal active radar homing. This air defense system can perform air defense engagement in a massive air raid under intense electronic jamming.

The ranking includes only the systems that are included in the arsenal of states and successfully used by various armies.

 

 



Tags: